Measles vaccination of macaques by dry powder inhalation
Measles vaccination via the aerosol route has proven effective under field conditions, using vaccine reconstituted prior to nebulization. Inhalation of a dry powder aerosol vaccine would have additional benefits, including easier logistics of administration, reduced cold chain dependence and the potential of single dose administration. We have evaluated two candidate dry powder measles vaccine formulations in macaques. Specific immune responses were demonstrated, but levels of immunity were lower than in animals vaccinated by injection or by nebulized aerosol. These studies provide proof of principle that dry powder inhalation is a possible route for measles vaccination, but suggest that either the vaccine formulation or the method of delivery need to be improved for a better immune response.