Determinants of carriage of resistant Escherichia coli in the Indonesian population inside and outside hospitals
Objectives: Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide healthcare problem exacerbated by antibiotic use and transmission of resistant bacteria. Not much is known about resistance in commensal flora and about determinants for resistance in Indonesia. This study analysed recent antibiotic use as well as demographic, socioeconomic, disease-related and healthcare-related determinants of rectal carriage of resistant Escherichia coli in the community and in hospitals in Indonesia. Methods: Carriers of susceptible E. coli were compared with carriers of E. coli with resistance to any of the tested antibiotics. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine which variables were associated with carriage of resistant E. coli. Individuals in the community with varying levels of contact with healthcare institutions and hospitalized patients were analysed as separate populations. Results and conclusions: Of 3275 individuals (community 2494, hospital 781), 54% carried resistant E. coli. Recent antibiotic use was the most important determinant of resistance in both populations [community: odds ratio (OR) 1.8, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.5-2.3; hospital: OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.6_3.9]. In the community, hospitalization (OR 2.4, 95% CI 2.0-3.0), diarrhoeal symptoms (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3-2.7) and age under 16 years (adults: OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.3-0.5) were associated with carriage of resistant E. coli. For hospitalized patients, having no health insurance was associated with less resistance (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9) and differences were observed between hospitals (Semarang: OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5-3.3) and departments (Paediatrics: OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.7-10.7). Further research is needed to investigate whether transmission is responsible for these differences.