Antigenic and molecular heterogeneity in recent swine influenza A(H1N1) virus isolates with possible implications for vaccination policy.
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In order to explore the occurrence of antigenic drift in swine influenza A(H1N1) viruses and the match between epidemic and vaccine strains, 26 virus isolates from outbreaks of respiratory disease among finishing pigs in the Netherlands in the 1995/1996 season and reference strains from earlier outbreaks were examined using serological and molecular methods. In contrast to swine H3N2 viruses, no significant antigenic drift was observed in swine H1N1 viruses isolated from the late 1980s up to 1996 inclusive. However, a marked antigenic and genetic heterogeneity in haemagglutination inhibition tests and nucleotide sequence analyses was detected among the 26 recent swine H1N1 virus strains. Interestingly, the observed antigenic and molecular variants were not randomly distributed over the farms. This finding indicates independent introductions of different swine H1N1 virus variants at the various farms of the study and points to a marked difference between the epidemiologies of human and swine influenza viruses. The observed heterogeneity may hamper the control of swine influenza by vaccination and indicates that the efficacy of current swine influenza vaccines requires re-evaluation and that the antigenic reactivity of swine influenza viruses should be monitored on a regular basis.
- Base Sequence
- *Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype
- Influenza Vaccines/*administration & dosage
- Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis
- Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/genetics/*immunology
- Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests/methods/veterinary
- Antigenic Variation/genetics/immunology
- Influenza A virus/enzymology/genetics/*immunology/*isolation & purification
- Neuraminidase/antagonists & inhibitors/genetics
- Orthomyxoviridae Infections/*prevention & control
- Swine Diseases/enzymology/prevention & control
- Vaccination/legislation & jurisprudence/methods/*veterinary