Incidence and risk factors of probable dengue virus infection among Dutch travelers to Asia.
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We studied the incidence of dengue virus (DEN) infections in a cohort of Dutch short-term travellers to endemic areas in Asia during 1991-92. Sera were collected before and after travel. All post-travel sera were tested for DEN immunoglobulin M (IgM) [IgM capture (MAC)-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)] and IgG (indirect ELISA). Probable DEN infection was defined as IgM seroconversion or a fourfold rise in IgG ratio in the absence of cross-reaction with antibody to Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Infections were considered clinically apparent in case of febrile illness (> 24 H) with headache, myalgia, arthralgia or rash. Probable DEN infection was found in 13 of 447 travellers (incidence rate 30/1000 person-months, 95% CI 17.4-51.6). One infection was considered secondary; no haemorrhagic fever occurred. The clinical-to-subclinical infection rate was 1:3.3. The risk of infection showed marked seasonal variation. DEN infections are frequent in travellers to endemic areas in Asia; most remain subclinical.
- Risk Factors
- Middle Aged
- Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
- Antibodies, Viral/*isolation & purification
- Immunoglobulin M/immunology