Quantitative assessment of regional left ventricular motion using endocardial landmarks
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In this study the hypothesis is tested that the motion pattern of small anatomic landmarks, recognizable at the left ventricular endocardial border in the contrast angiocardiogram, reflects the motion of the endocardial wall. To verify this, minute metal markers were inserted in the endocardium of eight pigs with a novel retrograde transvascular approach. Marker motion was subsequently recorded with roentgen cinematography and compared with the motion of the landmarks on the endocardial contours detected from the contrast ventriculogram with an automated contour detection system. Linear regression analysis of the directions of the systolic metal marker and endocardial landmark pathways yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.86 and a standard error of the estimate of 10.3 degrees. Landmark pathways were also measured in 23 normal human left ventriculograms. Normal left ventricular endocardial wall motion during systole, as observed in the 30 degrees right anterior oblique view, is characterized by a dominant inward transverse motion of the opposite anterior and inferoposterior walls and a descent of the base toward the apex. The apex itself is almost stationary. On the basis of these observations, a widely applicable model for the assessment of left ventricular wall motion is described in mathematical terms.
- Endocardium/*anatomy & histology/physiology
- Heart Ventricles/anatomy & histology/*physiology/radiography
- Models, Cardiovascular