Type D personality predicts death or myocardial infarction after bare metal stent or sirolimus-eluting stent implantation: a Rapamycin-Eluting Stent Evaluated at Rotterdam Cardiology Hospital (RESEARCH) registry substudy.
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Objectives: We investigated the effect of Type D personality on the occurrence of adverse events at nine months in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with sirolimus-eluting stents (SESs) or bare stents. Type D patients experience increased negative emotions and tend not to express these emotions in social interactions. Background: The SES is a new advent in interventional cardiology that reduces the restenosis rate and the risk of a major adverse cardiac event, but the SES has not been shown to confer any benefits on death or myocardial infarction (MI). Methods: Consecutive patients with IHD (n = 875) enrolled in the Rapamycin-Eluting Stent Evaluated At Rotterdam Cardiology Hospital (RESEARCH) registry completed the Type D Personality Scale (DS14) six months after PCI. The end point was a composite of death and MI. Events occurring before administration of the DS14 were excluded from analyses. Results: At nine months' follow-up, there were 20 events. Type D patients were at a cumulative increased risk of adverse outcome compared with non-Type D patients: 5.6% versus 1.3% (p < 0.002). Type D personality (odds ratio [OR] 5.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.06 to 13.66) remained an independent predictor of adverse outcome adjusting for all other variables, including SES versus bare-stent implantation. Conclusions: Type D personality was an independent predictor of adverse events in patients optimally treated with the latest advent in interventional cardiology. The DS14 could be used as a screening instrument in routine clinical practice to optimize risk stratification in IHD patients.