Karl Haushofer en het Nationaal-Socialisme: tijd, werk en invloed
(Karl Haushofer and National Socialism: time, work and influence)
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(Pierik(haushofer) dissertatie.pdf, 3.4MB)
For some the nineteenth century was the age of prophets. All over Europe new ideas struggled for precedence. Idealism was a strong issue, but committing to particular political ideas had its risks. Over the years ideas about country and nation had undergone changes. Under the influence of Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803) an organic concept of nations had become widely accepted. The assumption was that nations – like people, animals and plants – went through the phases of birth, growth, prosperity and death. As a mere metaphor, this concept was relatively harmless. However, Herder’s organic ideas also seeped through to science. Due to Charles Darwin’s influence such ideas found their way into political and scientific jargon and thought. Metaphor had turned into identity.1 Geography became political geography and political geography engendered geopolitics. Karl Haushofer was Germany’s main exponent of geopolitics. His contemporaries, geo-politicians such as Richard Henning and Leo Körholz defined the term geopolitics…”Geopolitics is a method of political analysis which emphasizes the role played by geography in international relations”. In his Dictionary of Geopolitics author John O’Loughlin in 1994 concluded that Geopolitik was mainly a political weapon, intellectual ammunition, from which evolved German expansionism and hegemony concepts.
Beunders, Prof. Dr. H.J.G. (promotor)