Fractional exhaled nitric oxide concentration (FENO) depends on exhalation flow; however, children often are unable to perform controlled flow procedures. Therefore, a device was developed for off-line FENO sampling, with dynamic flow restriction (DFR). The authors compared off-line with on-line FENO, assessed feasibility, and obtained normal values for FENO in children aged 4-8 yrs. Subjects inhaled nitric oxide (NO)-free air and exhaled into the device, where DFR kept exhalation flow constant at 50 mL x s(-1). Dead space air was discarded. Exhaled air was collected in a 150 mL mylar balloon. On-line measurements were performed and values compared with off-line FENO in 19 adult volunteers. Seventy-nine children performed off-line sampling. All samples were analysed with a chemiluminescence NO-analyser. Normal values were obtained in 34 healthy children. There was an excellent correlation between on- and off-line values. Bland and Altman plots showed good agreement between on- and off-line FENO. Seventy-four out of 79 children were able to perform a correct off-line procedure. Geometric mean+/-SEM FENO in healthy children was 4.9+/-1.2 parts per billion (ppb) for male children and 7.6+/-1.1 ppb for female children. It can be concluded that off-line fraction of exhaled nitric oxide measurements with dynamic flow restriction are feasible in young children and correspond to on-line values.

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The European Respiratory Journal
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Lissenberg, E. T., Hofhuis, W., Ghiro, L., Ho, W. C., Holland, W., de Jongste, J., & Pijnenburg, M. (2002). Exhaled nitric oxide measurements with dynamic flow restriction in children aged 4-8 yrs. The European Respiratory Journal. Retrieved from