Drivers and risk factors for Influenza A virus transmission across species barriers are poorly understood, despite the ever present threat to human and animal health potentially on a pandemic scale. Here we review the published evidence for epidemiological risk factors associated with influenza viruses transmitting between animal species and from animals to humans. A total of 39 papers were found with evidence of epidemiological risk factors for influenza virus transmission from animals to humans; 18 of which had some statistical measure associated with the transmission of a virus. Circumstantial or observational evidence of risk factors for transmission between animal species was found in 21 papers, including proximity to infected animals, ingestion of infected material and potential association with a species known to carry influenza virus. Only three publications were found which presented a statistical measure of an epidemiological risk factor for the transmission of influenza between animal species. This review has identified a significant gap in knowledge regarding epidemiological risk factors for the transmission of influenza viruses between animal species.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Avian influenza, Epidemiology, Influenza, Risk factor, Transmission, Zoonosis
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10393-017-1244-y, hdl.handle.net/1765/100078
Journal EcoHealth
Citation
Harris, K, Freidl, G.S, Munoz, O, von Dobschuetz, S, de Nardi, M, Wieland, B, … Breed, A.C. (2017). Epidemiological Risk Factors for Animal Influenza A Viruses Overcoming Species Barriers. EcoHealth (Vol. 14, pp. 342–360). doi:10.1007/s10393-017-1244-y