Diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) has been associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. Improving glycaemia or other traditional cardiovascular risk factors may reduce cardiovascular risk in patients with T2DM. However, single risk intervention in T2DM has not provided convincing evidence in the reduction of cardiovascular risk. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of clinical trials involving reduction of cardiovascular outcomes in patients with T2DM.Trials with glucose lowering therapies have shown conflicting results. Intensive therapy to reduce glycaemia has shown some benefit on composite cardiovascular endpoints but these benefits take a longer period to emerge. Recent studies with empagliflozin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists show promising results, but the mechanisms are most likely not mediated by improved glycaemia, given the relatively rapid effects. Both LDL-cholesterol and blood pressure reduction have been proven by large meta-analysis to reduce both cardiovascular events and mortality in all patients with T2DM. Treatment of microalbuminuria and anti-platelet therapy have only been proven in diabetic patients with increased cardiovascular risk.Classical lifestyle interventions have been disappointing with respect to cardiovascular outcome, possibly due to limited weight reduction. So far, the strongest evidence lies on bariatric surgery and a multifactorial intervention to reduce mortality and cardiovascular events in the long term.

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doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2017.04.017, hdl.handle.net/1765/100193
European Journal of Internal Medicine

Burggraaf, B., & Castro Cabezas, M. (2017). Interventions in type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular mortality. European Journal of Internal Medicine (Vol. 42, pp. 1–15). doi:10.1016/j.ejim.2017.04.017