Background: There is a lack of severity assessment tools to identify adults presenting with febrile urinary tract infection (FUTI) at risk for complicated outcome and guide admission policy. We aimed to validate the Prediction Rule for Admission policy in Complicated urinary Tract InfeCtion LEiden (PRACTICE), a modified form of the pneumonia severity index, and to subsequentially assess its use in clinical practice. Methods: A prospective observational multicenter study for model validation (2004-2009), followed by a multicenter controlled clinical trial with stepped wedge cluster-randomization for impact assessment (2010-2014), with a follow up of 3 months. Paricipants were 1157 consecutive patients with a presumptive diagnosis of acute febrile UTI (787 in validation cohort and 370 in the randomized trial), enrolled at emergency departments of 7 hospitals and 35 primary care centers in the Netherlands. The clinical prediction rule contained 12 predictors of complicated course. In the randomized trial the PRACTICE included guidance on hospitalization for high risk (>100 points) and home discharge for low risk patients (<75 points), in the control period the standard policy regarding hospital admission was applied. Main outcomes were effectiveness of the clinical prediction rule, as measured by primary hospital admission rate, and its safety, as measured by the rate of low-risk patients who needed to be hospitalized for FUTI after initial home-based treatment, and 30-day mortality. Results: A total of 370 patients were included in the randomized trial, 237 in the control period and 133 in the intervention period. Use of PRACTICE significantly reduced the primary hospitalization rate (from 219/237, 92%, in the control group to 96/133, 72%, in the intervention group, p < 0.01). The secondary hospital admission rate after initial outpatient treatment was 6% in control patients and 27% in intervention patients (1/17 and 10/37; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Although the proposed PRACTICE prediction rule is associated with a lower number of hospital admissions of patients presenting to the ED with presumptive febrile urinary tract infection, futher improvement is necessary to reduce the occurrence of secondary hospital admissions. Trial registration: NTR4480 , registered retrospectively 25 mrt 2014 (during enrollment of subjects).

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Keywords Community-acquired febrile urinary tract infection, Hospitalization, Prediction tool, Severity assessment
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Journal BMC Infectious Diseases
Stalenhoef, J.E. (Janneke E.), van der Starre, W.E. (Willize E.), Vollaard, A, Steyerberg, E.W, Delfos, N.M. (Nathalie M.), Leyten, E.M.S, … van Nieuwkoop, C. (2017). Hospitalization for community-acquired febrile urinary tract infection: Validation and impact assessment of a clinical prediction rule. BMC Infectious Diseases, 17(1). doi:10.1186/s12879-017-2509-3