To determine the incidence of glaucomatous visual field loss (GVFL) two decades after the start of the Rotterdam Study, and to compare known risk factors for open-angle glaucoma (OAG) between different clinical manifestations of OAG. Of 6806 participants aged 55 years and older from the population-based Rotterdam Study, 3939 underwent visual field testing at baseline and at least one follow-up round. The ophthalmic examinations included optic disc assessment and measurements of intraocular pressure (IOP), refractive error, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and height and weight. The incidence rate of GVFL was calculated. Associations with the risk factors age, gender, baseline IOP, family history, myopia, DBP, and body-mass index [BMI] were assessed using Cox regression, with different clinical manifestations of OAG as outcome measure (glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON), GVFL, GVFL and GON, GVFL without GON, and GON without GVFL). Median follow-up was 11.1 (IQR 6.8–17.2; range 5.0–20.3) years. The incidence rate of GVFL was 2.9 (95% confidence interval 2.4–3.4) per 1000 person years (140 cases with incident GVFL in one (n = 113) or both (n = 27) eyes). Baseline IOP and age were significantly associated with all OAG outcomes (all p < 0.001); BMI showed a non-significant protective effect in all outcomes (p = 0.01 to p = 0.09). Gender, myopia, and DBP were not associated with any outcome. Our study provides an estimate of the long-term incidence of GVFL in a predominantly white population. The development of GVFL was strongly associated with baseline IOP and age. Risk factor profiles were similar for the different outcomes.

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Keywords Glaucoma, Incidence, Intraocular pressure, Optic nerve, Visual field
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Journal European Journal of Epidemiology
Springelkamp, H, Wolfs, R.C.W, Ramdas, W.D, Hofman, A, Vingerling, J.R, Klaver, C.C.W, & Jansonius, N.M. (2017). Incidence of glaucomatous visual field loss after two decades of follow-up: the Rotterdam Study. European Journal of Epidemiology, 1–9. doi:10.1007/s10654-017-0270-y