Tacrolimus (Tac) is a profoundly effective immunosuppressant that reduces the risk of rejection after solid organ transplantation. However, its use is hampered by its narrow therapeutic window along with its highly variable pharmacological (pharmacokinetic [PK] and pharmacodynamic [PD]) profile. Part of this variability is explained by genetic polymorphisms affecting the metabolic pathway. The integration of CYP3A4 and CY3A5 genotype in tacrolimus population-based PK (PopPK) modeling approaches has been proven to accurately predict the dose requirement to reach the therapeutic window. The objective of the present study was to develop an accurate PopPK model in a cohort of 59 kidney transplant patients to deliver this information to clinicians in a clear and actionable manner. We conducted a non-parametric non-linear effects PopPK modeling analysis in Pmetrics®. Patients were genotyped for the CYP3A4*22 and CYP3A5*3 alleles and were classified into 3 different categories [poor-metabolizers (PM), Intermediate-metabolizers (IM) or extensive-metabolizers (EM)]. A one-compartment model with double gamma absorption route described very accurately the tacrolimus PK. In covariate analysis, only CYP3A genotype was retained in the final model (Δ-2LL = -73). Our model estimated that tacrolimus concentrations were 33% IC95%[20-26%], 41% IC95%[36-45%] lower in CYP3A IM and EM when compared to PM, respectively. Virtually, we proved that defining different starting doses for PM, IM and EM would be beneficial by ensuring better probability of target concentrations attainment allowing us to define new dosage recommendations according to patient CYP3A genetic profile.

Additional Metadata
Keywords CYP3A, Dosage recommendations, Kidney transplantation, Population pharmacokinetics, Single nucleotide polymorphisms, Tacrolimus
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2017.00358, hdl.handle.net/1765/100584
Journal Frontiers in Pharmacology
Citation
Woillard, J.B, Mourad, M, Neely, M. (Michael), Capron, A, van Schaik, R.H.N, van Gelder, T, … Elens, L. (2017). Tacrolimus updated guidelines through popPK modeling: How to benefit more from CYP3A pre-emptive genotyping prior to kidney transplantation. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 8(JUN). doi:10.3389/fphar.2017.00358