Background: The Evaluating Xience and left ventricular function in PCI on occlusiOns afteR STEMI (EXPLORE) trial did not show a significant benefit of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of the concurrent chronic total occlusion (CTO) in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients on global left ventricular (LV) systolic function. However a possible treatment effect will be most pronounced in the CTO territory. Therefore, we aimed to study the effect of CTO PCI compared to no-CTO PCI on the recovery of regional LV function, particularly in the CTO territory. Methods: Using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) we studied 180 of the 302 EXPLORE patients with serial CMR (baseline and 4 months follow-up). Segmental wall thickening (SWT) was quantified on cine images by an independent core laboratory. Dysfunctional segments were defined as SWT < 45%. Dysfunctional segments were further analyzed by viability (transmural extent of infarction (TEI) ≤50%.). All outcomes were stratified for randomization treatment. Results: In the dysfunctional segments in the CTO territory recovery of SWT was better after CTO PCI compared to no-CTO PCI (ΔSWT 17 ± 27% vs 11 ± 23%, p = 0.03). This recovery was most pronounced in the dysfunctional but viable segments(TEI < 50%) (ΔSWT 17 ± 27% vs 11 ± 22%, p = 0.02). Furthermore in the CTO territory, recovery of SWT was significantly better in the dysfunctional segments in patients with Rentrop grade 2-3 collaterals compared to grade 0-1 collaterals to the CTO (16 ± 26% versus 11 ± 24%, p = 0.04). Conclusion: CTO PCI compared with no-CTO PCI is associated with a greater recovery of regional systolic function in the CTO territory, especially in the dysfunctional but viable segments. Further research is needed to evaluate the use of CMR in selecting post-STEMI patients for CTO PCI and the effect of regional LV function recovery on clinical outcome. Trial registration: NTR1108, Date registered NTR: 30-okt-2007.

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Keywords CTO, LV function, PCI, STEMI
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Journal Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (Print)
Elias, J. (Joëlle), Van Dongen, I.M. (Ivo M.), Hoebers, F.J.P, Ouweneel, D.M. (Dagmar M.), Claessen, B.E, Råmunddal, T. (Truls), … Henriques, J.P.S. (2017). Improved recovery of regional left ventricular function after PCI of chronic total occlusion in STEMI patients: A cardiovascular magnetic resonance study of the randomized controlled EXPLORE trial. Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (Print), 19(1). doi:10.1186/s12968-017-0369-z