Purpose: To determine the associations between a priori and a posteriori derived dietary patterns and a general state of health, measured as the accumulation of deficits in a frailty index. Methods: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis embedded in the population-based Rotterdam Study (n = 2632) aged 45 years. Diet was assessed at baseline (year 2006) using food frequency questionnaires. Dietary patterns were defined a priori using an existing index reflecting adherence to national dietary guidelines and a posteriori using principal component analysis. A frailty index was composed of 38 health deficits and measured at baseline and follow-up (4 years later). Linear regression analyses were performed using adherence to each of the dietary patterns as exposure and the frailty index as outcome (all in Z-scores). Results: Adherence to the national dietary guidelines was associated with lower frailty at baseline (β −0.05, 95% CI −0.08, −0.02). Additionally, high adherence was associated with lower frailty scores over time (β −0.08, 95% CI −0.12, −0.04). The PCA revealed three dietary patterns that we named a “Traditional” pattern, high in legumes, eggs and savory snacks; a “Carnivore” pattern, high in meat and poultry; and a “Health Conscious” pattern, high in whole grain products, vegetables and fruit. In the cross-sectional analyses adherence to these patterns was not associated with frailty. However, adherence to the “Traditional” pattern was associated with less frailty over time (β −0.09, 95% CI −0.14, −0.05). Conclusion: No associations were found for adherence to a “healthy” pattern or “Carnivore” pattern. However, Even in a population that is relatively young and healthy, adherence to dietary guidelines or adherence to the Traditional pattern could help to prevent, delay or reverse frailty levels.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Diet quality, Dietary patterns, Elderly, Frailty, Frailty index
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-017-1509-9, hdl.handle.net/1765/101017
Journal European Journal of Nutrition
Citation
de Haas, S.C.M. (Sandra C. M.), de Jonge, E.A.L, Voortman, R.G, Steenweg-de Graaff, J.C.J, Franco, O.H. (Oscar H.), Ikram, M.A, … Schoufour, J.D. (2017). Dietary patterns and changes in frailty status: the Rotterdam study. European Journal of Nutrition, 1–11. doi:10.1007/s00394-017-1509-9