Kromhout et al.'s (1993) well-cited publication presented detailed information on statistical procedures to estimate the magnitude of exposure variability within and between workers, drawing from a large database on chemical exposures throughout industry. It convincingly demonstrated that the construct of homogeneous exposure groups often does not hold true and suggested ways to improve measurement strategies. The authors hit a rich vein of research, and many publications, not at least by the authors themselves, followed in the decade after publication. In recent years the principles of estimating the variation in exposure have been applied in new methods for optimization of sampling strategies, for compliance testing, for quantifying exposures in epidemiologic studies, and for identifying important sources of emissions and suggesting strategies for controlling exposures. Many occupational hygienists across the globe have adopted these new methods as powerful tools in their exposure assessment strategies.

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Annals of Occupational Hygiene: an international scientific journal on the causation and control of work-related ill-health
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam