Facial wrinkling is one of the most notable signs of skin aging. Men and women show different wrinkling patterns yet the lifestyle and physiological factors underlying these sex-specific patterns are relatively unknown. Here, we investigated sex-specific determinants for facial wrinkles. Wrinkle area was quantified digitally using facial photographs of 3,831 northwestern Europeans (51–98 years, 58% female). Effect estimates from multivariable linear regressions are presented as the percentage difference in the mean value of wrinkle area per unit increase of a determinant (%Δ). Wrinkle area was higher in men (median 4.5%, interquartile range: 2.9–6.3) than in women (3.6%, interquartile range: 2.2–5.6). Age was the strongest determinant, and current smoking (men: 15.5%Δ; women: 30.9%Δ) and lower body mass index (men: 1.7%Δ; women: 1.8%Δ) were also statistically significantly associated with increased wrinkling. Pale skin color showed a protective effect (men: −21.0%Δ; women: −28.5%Δ) and, in men, sunburn tendency was associated with less wrinkling. In women, low educational levels and alcohol use were associated with more wrinkling, whereas female pattern hair loss and a higher free androgen index were associated with less wrinkling. In summary, we validated known and identified additional determinants for wrinkling. Skin aging-reducing strategies should incorporate the sex differences found in this study.

Additional Metadata
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jid.2017.04.002, hdl.handle.net/1765/101125
Journal The Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Citation
Hamer, M.A, Pardo Cortes, L.M, Jacobs, L.C, Ikram, M.A, Laven, J.S.E, Kayser, M.H, … Nijsten, T.E.C. (2017). Lifestyle and Physiological Factors Associated with Facial Wrinkling in Men and Women. The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 137(8), 1692–1699. doi:10.1016/j.jid.2017.04.002