Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feeding styles and parenting styles are associated with children's unhealthy snacking behaviour and whether the associations differ according to children's ethnic background. Method: Cross-sectional data from the population-based 'Water Campaign' study were used. Parents (n=644) of primary school children (6-13 years) completed a questionnaire covering sociodemographic characteristics, feeding style dimensions ('control over eating', 'emotional feeding', 'encouragement to eat' and 'instrumental feeding'), parenting style dimensions ('involvement' and 'strictness') and children's unhealthy snacking behaviour. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine whether feeding styles and parenting styles were associated with children's unhealthy snacking behaviour. Result: Overall, children whose parents had a higher extent of 'control over eating' had a lower odds of eating unhealthy snacks more than once per day (OR, 0.57; 95% CI 0.42 to 0.76). Further stratified analysis showed that 'control over eating' was associated with less unhealthy snacking behaviour only in children with a Dutch (OR, 0.37; 95% CI 0.20 to 0.68) or a Moroccan/Turkish (OR, 0.44; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.77) ethnic background. 'Encouragement to eat' was associated with a lower odds of eating unhealthy snacks every day in children with a Dutch ethnic background only (OR, 0.48; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.90). 'Instrumental feeding' was associated with a higher odds of eating unhealthy snacks more than once a day in children with a Moroccan/Turkish ethnic background only (OR, 1.43; 95% CI 1.01 to 2.04). Conclusion: Our results suggest that 'control over eating' may be associated with less unhealthy snack consumption in children. The associations of feeding styles and parenting styles with children's unhealthy snacking behaviour differed between children with different ethnic backgrounds.

Additional Metadata
Keywords child snacking behavior, ethnicity, feeding styles, parenting styles
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-015495, hdl.handle.net/1765/101200
Journal BMJ Open
Citation
Wang, L. (Lu), Kruitwagen - van de Gaar, V.M.J, Jansen, W, Mieloo, C.L, van Grieken, A, & Raat, H. (2017). Feeding styles, parenting styles and snacking behaviour in children attending primary schools in multiethnic neighbourhoods: A cross-sectional study. BMJ Open, 7(7). doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-015495