Resistance to carbapenem antibiotics through the production of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) constitutes an emerging challenge in the treatment of bacterial infections. To monitor the possible source of the spread of these organisms in Dhaka, Bangladesh, we conducted a comparative analysis of wastewater samples from hospital-adjacent areas (HAR) and from community areas (COM), as well as public tap water samples, for the occurrence and characteristics of NDM-1-producing bacteria. Of 72 HAR samples tested, 51 (71%) samples were positive for NDM-1-producing bacteria, as evidenced by phenotypic tests and the presence of the blaNDM-1 gene, compared to 5 of 41 (12.1%) samples from COM samples (P < 0.001). All tap water samples were negative for NDM-1-producing bacteria. Klebsiella pneumoniae (44%) was the predominant bacterial species among blaNDM-1-positive isolates, followed by Escherichia coli (29%), Acinetobacter spp. (15%), and Enterobacter spp. (9%). These bacteria were also positive for one or more other antibiotic resistance genes, including blaCTX-M-1 (80%), blaCTX-M-15 (63%), blaTEM (76%), blaSHV (33%), blaCMY-2 (16%), blaOXA-48-like (2%), blaOXA-1 (53%), and blaOXA-47-like (60%) genes. Around 40% of the isolates contained a qnr gene, while 50% had 16S rRNA methylase genes. The majority of isolates hosted multiple plasmids, and plasmids of 30 to 50 MDa carrying blaNDM-1 were self-transmissible. Our results highlight a number of issues related to the characteristics and source of spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria as a potential public health threat. In view of the existing practice of discharging untreated liquid waste into the environment, hospitals in Dhaka city contribute to the potential dissemination of NDM-1-producing bacteria into the community.

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Keywords Dhaka city, Hospital, NDM-1, Tap water, Wastewater
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00793-17, hdl.handle.net/1765/101228
Journal Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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Citation
Islam, M.A. (Mohammad Aminul), Islam, M. (Moydul), Hasan, R. (Rashedul), Hossain, M.I. (M. Iqbal), Nabi, A, Rahman, M, … Faruque, S.M. (2014). Environmental spread of New Delhi metallo-β- lactamase-1-producing multidrug-resistant bacteria in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 83(15). doi:10.1128/AEM.00793-17