Objectives The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot Scale is among the most commonly used instruments for measuring outcome of treatment in patients who sustained a complex ankle or hindfoot injury. It consists of a patient-reported and a physician-reported part. A validated, Dutch version of this instrument is currently not available. The aim of this study was to translate the instrument into Dutch and to determine the measurement properties of the AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot Scale Dutch language version (DLV) in patients with a unilateral ankle fracture. Setting Multicentre (two Dutch hospitals), prospective observational study. Participants In total, 142 patients with a unilateral ankle fracture were included. Ten patients were lost to follow-up. Primary and secondary outcome measures Patients completed the subjective (patient-reported) part of the AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot Scale-DLV. A physician or trained physician-assistant completed the physician-reported part. For comparison and evaluation of the measuring characteristics, the Foot Function Index and the Short Form-36 were completed by the patient. Descriptive statistics (including floor and ceiling effects), reliability (ie, internal consistency), construct validity, reproducibility (ie, test-retest reliability, agreement and smallest detectable change) and responsiveness were determined. Results The AOFAS-DLV and its subscales showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's α >0.90). Construct validity and longitudinal validity were proven to be adequate (76.5% of predefined hypotheses were confirmed). Floor effects were not present. Ceiling effects were present from 6 months onwards, as expected. Responsiveness was adequate, with a smallest detectable change of 12.0 points. Conclusions The AOFAS-DLV is a reliable, valid and responsive measurement instrument for evaluating functional outcome in patients with a unilateral ankle fracture. This implies that the questionnaire is suitable to compare different treatment modalities within this population or to compare outcome across hospitals. Trial registration The Netherlands Trial Register (NTR5613; 05-jan-2016).

Additional Metadata
Keywords ankle, fracture, reliability, responsiveness, validity
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017040, hdl.handle.net/1765/101352
Series Surgery and Traumatology
Journal BMJ Open
de Boer, A.S, Tjioe, R.J.C. (Roderik J.C.), Van Der Sijde, F. (Fleur), Meuffels, D.E, den Hoed, P.Th, van der Vlies, C.H, … van Lieshout, E.M.M. (2017). The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot Scale; Translation and validation of the Dutch language version for ankle fractures. BMJ Open, 7(8). doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017040