This article examines to what degree citizens and societal stakeholders are involved in Public–Private Partnership (PPP) projects, what factors account for their involvement, and what the effects are on the performance and innovativeness of the projects. This research, based on a survey in 2014 consisting of 144 respondents involved in Dutch PPP projects, shows that although trustful relationships between actors enhance the inclusion of societal parties, the presence of a contract that allows for flexibility leads to more citizen involvement. Furthermore, we found that the involvement of stakeholders leads to more innovative projects but not necessarily to better performing projects.

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This article presents findings of the research project Governance for Smartening Public–Private Partnerships implemented in collaboration with the University of Twente and financed by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO; Dutch research Council: No. 409-14- 014) and co-financed by The Netherlands School of Public Administration (NSOB), Deltares, Rebel group, Resetmanagement, Twynstra Gudde, and Rijkswaterstaat.,
Administration & Society
Erasmus School of Social and Behavioural Sciences

Nederhand, J., & Klijn, E.-H. (2018). Stakeholder involvement in public private partnerships : its influence on the innovative character of projects and on project performance. Administration & Society. doi:10.1177/0095399716684887