Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer among men worldwide and even ranks first in Europe. Although Asia is known as the region with the lowest PCa incidence, it has been rising rapidly over the last 20 years mostly due to the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing. Randomized PCa screening studies in Europe show a mortality reduction in favor of PSA-based screening but coincide with high proportions of unnecessary biopsies, overdiagnosis and subsequent overtreatment. Conclusive data on the value of PSA-based screening and hence the balance between harms and benefits in Asia is still lacking. Because of known racial variations, Asian countries should not directly apply the European screening models. Like in the western world also in Asia, new predictive markers, tools and risk stratification strategies hold great potential to improve the early detection of PCa and to reduce the worldwide existing negative aspects of PSA-based PCa screening.

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Keywords Asia, Biomarkers, Early detection, Europe, Imaging, Prostate cancer, Risk prediction
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Journal Asian Journal of Urology
Zhang, K. (Kai), Bangma, C.H, & Roobol-Bouts, M.J. (2017). Prostate cancer screening in Europe and Asia. Asian Journal of Urology (Vol. 4, pp. 86–95). doi:10.1016/j.ajur.2016.08.010