The scientific interests in the colorectal cancer (CRC) associated microbiome have increased significantly in the past decade. Mechanistically, several members of the human microbiome and products thereof have been implicated as inductors of the pathogenic inflammation related to CRC. Conversely, the activities of the human intestinal microbial community influenced by specific diet might confer a protective effect against the CRC risks and progression. As the microbiome is both a key contributor and one of the tools to prevent CRC, the current review gives a summary of the CRC-associated microbiome and the dietary strategies relevant to CRC. As more evidences become available, new microbiome-based treatments and specific diets may emerge to reduce the CRC risk and improve CRC patients' quality of life.