The molecular imaging and treatment of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) with radiolabeled somatostatin analogs represent a milestone in the development of theranostic compounds. Whole-body scintigraphy with 111In-pentetreotide has revolutionized the diagnosis and staging of NETs and the evaluation of treatment outcomes. At present, diagnostic accuracy with positron-emitting radionuclides is greater than 90%. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) has become a well-accepted treatment for patients with welldifferentiated inoperable or metastatic NETs and disease progression after first-line treatment. Disease control rates (complete or partial remission or stable disease in patients with formerly progressive disease) of up to 95%, with a low incidence of long-term hematologic and renal toxicity, have been reported. In a recently published randomized trial, compared with intensified treatment of midgut NETs with longacting and repeatable octreotide, PRRT reduced the hazard of disease progression and death by 79%. Upcoming developments in PRRT include the use of somatostatin receptor antagonists and a-emitting radionuclides, which may further enhance treatment outcomes.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Neuroendocrine tumors, Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, Somatostatin receptor, Theranostics
Persistent URL,
Journal The Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Smit Duijzentkunst, D.A. (Daan A.), Kwekkeboom, D.J, & Bodei, L. (2017). Somatostatin receptor 2-targeting compounds. The Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 58, 54S–60S. doi:10.2967/jnumed.117.191015