Background: In 2008, a bundle of care to prevent Surgical Site Infections (SSIs) was introduced in the Netherlands. The bundle consisted of four elements: antibiotic prophylaxis according to local guidelines, no hair removal, normothermia and ‘hygiene discipline’ in the operating room (i.e. number of door movements). Dutch hospitals were advised to implement the bundle and to measure the outcome. This study’s goal was to assess how effective the bundle was in reducing SSI risk. Methods: Hospitals assessed whether their staff complied with each of the bundle elements and voluntary reported compliance data to the national SSI surveillance network (PREZIES). From PREZIES data, we selected data from 2009 to 2014 relating to 13 types of surgical procedures. We excluded surgeries with missing (non)compliance data, and calculated for each remaining surgery with reported (non)compliance data the level of compliance with the bundle (that is, being compliant with 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 of the elements). Subsequently, we used this level of compliance to assess the effect of bundle compliance on the SSI risk, using multilevel logistic regression techniques. Results: 217 489 surgeries were included, of which 62 486 surgeries (29%) had complete bundle reporting. Within this group, the SSI risk was significantly lower for surgeries with complete bundle compliance compared to surgeries with lower compliance levels. Odds ratios ranged from 0.63 to 0.86 (risk reduction of 14% to 37%), while a 13% risk reduction was demonstrated for each point increase in compliance-level. Sensitivity analysis indicated that due to analysing reported bundles only, we probably underestimated the total effect of implementing the bundle. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that adhering to a surgical care bundle significantly reduced the risk of SSIs. Reporting of and compliance with the bundle compliance can, however, still be improved. Therefore an even greater effect might be achieved.

Additional Metadata
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0184200, hdl.handle.net/1765/101899
Journal PLoS ONE
Citation
Koek, M.B.G. (Mayke B. G.), Hopmans, T.E.M. (Titia E. M.), Soetens, L.C. (Loes C.), Wille, J.C, Geerlings, S.E, Vos, M.C, … de Greeff, S.C. (2017). Adhering to a national surgical care bundle reduces the risk of surgical site infections. PLoS ONE, 12(9). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0184200