Infradiaphragmatic irradiation and high procarbazine doses increase colorectal cancer risk in Hodgkin lymphoma survivors
Background:Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors are at increased risk of second malignancies, but few studies have assessed colorectal cancer (CRC) risk after HL treatment. We assessed long-term, subsite-specific CRC risk associated with specific radiation fields and chemotherapy regimens.Methods:In a Dutch cohort of 3121 5-year HL survivors treated between 1965 and 1995, subsite-specific CRC incidence was compared with general population rates. Treatment effects were quantified by Cox regression analyses.Results:After a median follow-up of 22.9 years, 55 patients developed CRC. The standardized incidence ratios (SIR) was 2.4-fold increased (95% confidence interval (95%CI) 1.8-3.2), leading to 5.7 excess cases per 10 000 patient-years. Risk was still increased 30 years after HL treatment (SIR: 2.8; 95%CI: 1.6-4.6). The highest (SIR: 6.5, 95%CI: 3.3-11.3) was seen for transverse colon cancer (15.0 (95%CI: 4.3-40.8) after inverted-Y irradiation). A prescribed cumulative procarbazine dose >4.2 g m â '2 was associated with a 3.3-fold higher CRC risk (95%CI: 1.8-6.1) compared to treatment without procarbazine. Patients receiving >4.2 g m â '2 procarbazine and infradiaphragmatic radiotherapy had a hazard ratio of 6.8 (95%CI: 3.0-15.6) compared with patients receiving neither treatment, which is significantly higher than an additive joint effect (P additivity =0.004).Conclusions:Colorectal cancer surveillance should be considered for HL survivors who received Infradiaphragmatic radiotherapy and a high cumulative procarbazine dose.
|Persistent URL||dx.doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2017.177, hdl.handle.net/1765/101953|
|Journal||British Journal of Cancer|
van Eggermond, A.M, Schaapveld, M, Janus, C.P.M, De Boer, J.P, Krol, A.D.G, Zijlstra, J.M, … van Leeuwen, F.E. (2017). Infradiaphragmatic irradiation and high procarbazine doses increase colorectal cancer risk in Hodgkin lymphoma survivors. British Journal of Cancer, 117(3), 306–314. doi:10.1038/bjc.2017.177