Musculoskeletal disorders of the upper-extremity and neck are extremely common and one of the major causes of disability, sickness absence and health care use all around the world. The conditions do not threaten life, but they result in considerable discomfort for the patient and financial burden to society. Various names are given to musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremity and various project have been conducted to achieve consensus on diagnostic criteria. However, a complete overview of all musculoskeletal neck and upperextremity disorders coupled with a classification system that can be multidisciplinary approved was still missing. This thesis reported on the development of a new approach for terminology and classification of these disorders: CANS (complaints of the arm, neck and/or shoulder) and the CANS model.

Dutch Arthritis Association, Stichting Anna Fonds, A-Delphi Events, Rotterdam, Wilgenhaege vermogensbeheer, Hoofddorp, Ontwerpstudio Spanjaard, Bilthoven.
B.W. Koes (Bart) , J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan)
Erasmus University Rotterdam
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Huisstede, B. (2007, June 8). Complaints of the Arm, Neck and/or Shoulder. A new approach to its terminology and classification: the CANS model. Retrieved from