The use of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes, as liquid biopsy-derived biomarkers for cancers have been investigated. CTC enumeration using the CellSearch based platform provides an accurate insight on overall survival where higher CTC counts indicate poor prognosis for patients with advanced metastatic cancer. EVs provide information based on their lipid, protein, and nucleic acid content and can be isolated from biofluids and analyzed from a relatively small volume, providing a routine and non-invasive modality to monitor disease progression. Our pilot experiment by assessing the level of two subpopulations of small EVs, the CD9 positive and CD63 positive EVs, showed that the CD9 positive EV level is higher in plasma from patients with advanced metastatic prostate cancer with detectable CTCs. These data show the potential utility of a particular EV subpopulation to serve as biomarkers for advanced metastatic prostate cancer. EVs can potentially be utilized as biomarkers to provide accurate genotypic and phenotypic information for advanced prostate cancer, where new strategies to design a more personalized therapy is currently the focus of considerable investigation.

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Keywords biomarker, circulating tumor cells (CTCs), exosome, extracellular vesicle, prostate cancer
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Journal The Prostate
Soekmadji, C, Corcoran, A.W, Oleinikova, I. (Irina), Jovanovic, L. (Lidija), Ramm, G.A. (Grant A.), Nelson, C.C. (Colleen C.), … Russell, P.J. (Pamela J.). (2017). Extracellular vesicles for personalized therapy decision support in advanced metastatic cancers and its potential impact for prostate cancer. The Prostate (Vol. 77, pp. 1416–1423). doi:10.1002/pros.23403