High-risk breast cancer comprises distinct tumor entities such as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) which is characterized by lack of estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) and the HER2 receptor and breast malignancies which have spread to more than three lymph nodes. For such patients, current (inter)national guidelines recommend anthracycline-based chemotherapy as the standard of care, but not all patients do equally benefit from such a chemotherapy. To further improve therapy decision-making, predictive biomarkers are of high, so far unmet, medical need. In this respect, predictive biomarkers would permit patient selection for a particular kind of chemotherapy and, by this, guide physicians to optimize the treatment plan for each patient individually. Besides DNA mutations, DNA methylation as a patient selection marker has received increasing clinical attention. For instance, significant evidence has accumulated that methylation of the PITX2 (paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2) gene might serve as a novel predictive and prognostic biomarker, for a variety of cancer diseases. This review highlights the current understanding of treatment modalities of high-risk breast cancer patients with a focus on recommended treatment options, with special attention on the future clinical application of PITX2 as a predictive biomarker to personalize breast cancer management.

Additional Metadata
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/4934608, hdl.handle.net/1765/102242
Journal Disease Markers
Aubele, M. (Michaela), Schmitt, M. (Manfred), Napieralski, R, Paepke, S. (Stefan), Ettl, J. (Johannes), Absmaier, M. (Magdalena), … Kiechle, M. (2017). The Predictive Value of PITX2 DNA Methylation for High-Risk Breast Cancer Therapy: Current Guidelines, Medical Needs, and Challenges. Disease Markers (Vol. 2017). doi:10.1155/2017/4934608