Charles Landry's theory of innovative milieu can be used to describe the innovative milieu of Helsinki, its historical development into a capital city, which became not only a centre of administration and higher education but also the hub of the nation's cultural life and a major industrial centre. Factors such as efficient search for the latest international know-how, the non-hierarchical mentality in offering people opportunities to travel abroad, the effective follow-up system Helsinki constructed, the development of a scientific infrastructure, equality in education through the social strata and the strong position of women are introduced to exemplify Helsinki's innovativeness.

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European Science Foundation
The European Metropolis 1920-2000
Erasmus School of History, Culture and Communication (ESHCC)

Hietala, M. (2003). Key Factors behind the Innovativeness of Helsinki. In The European Metropolis 1920-2000. Retrieved from