Treatment modalities for newborns with anatomical congenital anomalies have greatly improved over the past decades, with a concomitant increase in survival. This review will briefly discuss specific long-term outcomes to illustrate, which domains deserve to be considered in long-term follow-up of patients with anatomical congenital anomalies. Apart from having disease-specific morbidities these children are at risk for impaired neurodevelopmental problems and school failure, which may affect participation in society in later life. There is every reason to offer them long-term multidisciplinary follow-up programs. We further provide an overview of the methodology of long-term follow-up, its significance and discuss ways to improve care for newborns with anatomical congenital anomalies from childhood into adulthood. Future initiatives should focus on transition of care, risk stratification, and multicenter collaboration.

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Keywords Anorectal malformation, Congenital diaphragmatic hernia, Congenital malformation, Esophageal atresia, Follow-up, Growth, Neurodevelopment, Outcome studies
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Journal Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
IJsselstijn, H, Gischler, S.J, Wijnen, R.M.H, & Tibboel, D. (2017). Assessment and significance of long-term outcomes in pediatric surgery. Seminars in Pediatric Surgery. doi:10.1053/j.sempedsurg.2017.09.004