Recent advances in microsurgical techniques facilitate surgical resection of brainstem lesions that were previously considered inoperable. Cavernous hemangiomas with repeated hemorrhage that reach the pial surface or display progressive neurological deficits can be resected safely with acceptable morbidity. Various approaches to the mesencephalon or midbrain, tailored to the exact location of the lesion, have been described. In this chapter we describe a novel approach to the mesencephalic tegmentum via the aqueduct, adding to contemporary microneurosurgery, respecting functional anatomy and minimizing neurological deficits.,
Department of Neurosurgery

Dammers, R., Delwel, E., & Krisht, A. (2012). Total removal of cavernous hemangioma using the tonsillouveal transaqueductal approach (method). In Tumors of the Central Nervous System, Volume 9: Lymphoma, Supratentorial Tumors, Glioneuronal Tumors, Gangliogliomas, Neuroblastoma in Adults, Astrocytomas, Ependymomas, Hemangiomas, and Craniopharyngiomas (pp. 207–214). doi:10.1007/978-94-007-5488-1_24