Context: Insulin resistance could increase insulin requirements in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Current insulin immunoassays do not detect insulin analogs. Kinase insulin receptor (IR) activation (KIRA) bioassays specific for human IR isoforms A (IR-A) and B (IR-B) permit assessment of all circulating insulin bioactivity. We studied whether IR-A and IR-B KIRA assays are related to direct measures of insulin sensitivity or insulin doses in T1D.Design: We evaluated 31 adult patients with T1D (age 45.7 ± 1.6 years, body mass index 28.8 ± 0.7 kg/m2). Serum IR-A and IR-B bioactivities were measured by KIRA bioassays. Insulin sensitivity of glucose production (Ra) was measured by the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique in which a low insulin dose (0.4 mU/kg/min for 240 minutes) was combined with D-[3-3H] glucose infusion to measure rates of Ra and utilization and insulin action on antilipolysis from suppression of serum free fatty acids.Results: Baseline circulating IR-A bioactivity was 53 ± 7 pmol/L, and IR-B bioactivity was 81 ± 11 pmol/L. Compared with baseline, insulin infusion significantly increased IR-A (P < 0.001) and IR-B (P < 0.001) bioactivities. Fasting IR-A and IR-B bioactivities were positively related to endogenous Ra (r = 0.44, P = 0.01 and r = 0.38, P < 0.05). Fasting IR-A (r = 0.43, P = 0.02) and IR-B (r = 0.47, P = 0.01) bioactivities were significantly correlated with insulin requirements and glycosylated hemoglobin (IR-A: r = 0.52, P = 0.002; IR-B: r = 0.48, P = 0.006).Conclusions: Circulating IR-A and IR-B bioactivities are associated with insulin resistance, high insulin requirements, and poor glycemic control in T1D. Measurement of IR bioactivity by KIRA assays provides a tool to assess the amount of biologically active insulin in groups of T1D patients treated with insulin analogs.,
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Department of Internal Medicine

Janssen, J.A.M.J.L. (Joseph A M J L), Llauradó, G., Varewijck, A., Groop, P.-H., Forsblom, C., Fernández-Veledo, S., … Yki-Jarvinen, H. (2017). Serum Insulin Bioassay Reflects Insulin Sensitivity and Requirements in Type 1 Diabetes. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 102(10), 3814–3821. doi:10.1210/jc.2017-00892