The Randstad Holland is not a metropolis in a theoretical sense. It is a conurbation of four big cities - Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, Utrecht - and at least six smaller ones, which are linked by suburban extensions. We studied the economic, political, social, and cultural dimensions of the Randstad, and found out that in course of time the more or less complementary centres turned into competitive municipalities, especially in the fields of economics and culture. In fact, within the Randstad two wings can be discerned a north wing - the Amsterdam-Utrecht axis- and a south wing - the Rotterdam-The Hague axis. The more commerce oriented north wing seems to have the best prospects.

European Science Foundation
The European Metropolis 1920-2000
Erasmus School of History, Culture and Communication (ESHCC)

van de Laar, P., & Kooy, P. (2003). The Randstad conurbation: a floating metropolis in the Dutch Delta. In The European Metropolis 1920-2000. Retrieved from