Introduction: Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs) are caused by an impairment of peroxisome biogenesis, resulting in multiple metabolic abnormalities. This leads to a range of symptoms, including hepatic dysfunction and coagulopathy. This study evaluated the incidence and severity of coagulopathy and the effect of vitamin K supplementation orally and IV in ZSD. Methods: Data were retrospectively retrieved from the medical records of 30 ZSD patients to study coagulopathy and the effect of vitamin K orally on proteins induced by vitamin K absence (PIVKA-II) levels. Five patients from the cohort with a prolonged prothrombin time, low factor VII, and elevated PIVKA-II levels received 10 mg of vitamin K IV. Laboratory results, including thrombin generation, at baseline and 72 h after vitamin K administration were examined. Results: In the retrospective cohort, four patients (13.3%) experienced intracranial bleedings and 14 (46.7%) reported minor bleeding. No thrombotic events occurred. PIVKA-II levels decreased 38% after start of vitamin K therapy orally. In the five patients with a coagulopathy, despite treatment with oral administration of vitamin K, vitamin K IV caused an additional decrease (23%) of PIVKA-II levels and increased thrombin generation. Conclusion: Bleeding complications frequently occur in ZSD patients due to liver disease and vitamin K deficiency. Vitamin K deficiency is partly corrected by vitamin K supplementation orally, and vitamin K administered IV additionally improves vitamin K status, as shown by further decrease of PIVKA-II and improved thrombin generation.

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Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Department of Pediatrics

Zeynelabidin, S. (Sara), Klouwer, F.C.C. (Femke C. C.), Meijers, J. C. M., Suijker, M.H. (Monique H.), Engelen, M., Poll-The, B. T., & van Ommen, H. (2017). Coagulopathy in Zellweger spectrum disorders: a role for vitamin K. Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease, 1–7. doi:10.1007/s10545-017-0113-8