Background: Peanut allergy (PA) is a complex disease with both environmental and genetic risk factors. Previously, PA loci were identified in filaggrin (FLG) and HLA in candidate gene studies, and loci in HLA were identified in a genome-wide association study and meta-analysis. Objective: We sought to investigate genetic susceptibility to PA. Methods: Eight hundred fifty cases and 926 hyper-control subjects and more than 7.8 million genotyped and imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed in a genome-wide association study to identify susceptibility variants for PA in the Canadian population. A meta-analysis of 2 phenotypes (PA and food allergy) was conducted by using 7 studies from the Canadian, American (n = 2), Australian, German, and Dutch (n = 2) populations. Results: An SNP near integrin α6 (ITGA6) reached genome-wide significance with PA (P = 1.80 × 10-8), whereas SNPs associated with Src kinase-associated phosphoprotein 1 (SKAP1), matrix metallopeptidase 12 (MMP12)/MMP13, catenin α3 (CTNNA3), rho GTPase-activating protein 24 (ARHGAP24), angiopoietin 4 (ANGPT4), chromosome 11 open reading frame (C11orf30/EMSY), and exocyst complex component 4 (EXOC4) reached a threshold suggestive of association (P ≤ 1.49 × 10-6). In the meta-analysis of PA, loci in or near ITGA6, ANGPT4, MMP12/MMP13, C11orf30, and EXOC4 were significant (P ≤ 1.49 × 10-6). When a phenotype of any food allergy was used for meta-analysis, the C11orf30 locus reached genome-wide significance (P = 7.50 × 10-11), whereas SNPs associated with ITGA6, ANGPT4, MMP12/MMP13, and EXOC4 and additional C11orf30 SNPs were suggestive (P ≤ 1.49 × 10-6). Functional annotation indicated that SKAP1 regulates expression of CBX1, which colocalizes with the EMSY protein coded by C11orf30. Conclusion: This study identifies multiple novel loci as risk factors for PA and food allergy and establishes C11orf30 as a risk locus for both PA and food allergy. Multiple genes (C11orf30/. EMSY, SKAP1, and CTNNA3) identified by this study are involved in epigenetic regulation of gene expression.

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Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Asai, Y. (Yuka), Eslami, A. (Aida), van Ginkel, C.D. (C. Dorien), Akhabir, L. (Loubna), Wan, M. (Ming), Ellis, G. (George), … Daley, D. (2017). Genome-wide association study and meta-analysis in multiple populations identifies new loci for peanut allergy and establishes C11orf30/EMSY as a genetic risk factor for food allergy. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2017.09.015