Proinflammatory Cytokine Responses in Extra-Respiratory Tissues during Severe Influenza
Severe influenza is often associated with disease manifestations outside the respiratory tract. While proinflammatory cytokines can be detected in the lungs and blood of infected patients, the role of extra-respiratory organs in the production of proinflammatory cytokines is unknown. Here, we show that both 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A (H1N1) virus and highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus induce expression of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8 in the respiratory tract and central nervous system. In addition, H5N1 virus induced cytokines in the heart, pancreas, spleen, liver, and jejunum. Together, these data suggest that extra-respiratory tissues contribute to systemic cytokine responses, which may increase the severity of influenza.
|Keywords||cytokine storm, cytokines, extra-respiratory responses, H1N1, H5N1, influenza, pathogenesis, systemic disease|
|Persistent URL||dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jix281, hdl.handle.net/1765/103162|
|Journal||The Journal of Infectious Diseases|
Short, K.R, Veeris, R. (Rebecca), Leijten, L.M.E, van den Brand, J.M.A, Jong, V.L, Stittelaar, K.J, … van Riel, D.A.J. (2017). Proinflammatory Cytokine Responses in Extra-Respiratory Tissues during Severe Influenza. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 216(7), 829–833. doi:10.1093/infdis/jix281