The effects of ceftizoxime (CZX), piperacillin (PIP), and PIP-tazobactam (PT) concentrations on the antibacterial activity and selection of resistant mutants of Bacteroides fragilis and Enterobacter cloacae were investigated in vitro in a mixed-culture anaerobic time-kill study and in vivo in a mixed-infection abscess model. Mixed cultures were incubated for 24 h with 0.125 to 512 micro g of CZX per ml or 0.125 to 2,048 micro g of PIP or PT per ml. Mice were treated every 2 h for 24 h with CZX at 6 to 1,536 mg/kg/day or with PIP or PT at 24 to 6,144 mg/kg/day starting 30 min before inoculation with different B. fragilis-E. cloacae combinations. There was a good correlation between the in vitro and in vivo activities of the antibiotics and their MICs obtained with high inocula (10(8) CFU/ml). The respective 50% effective doses (milligrams per kilogram per day) with B. fragilis and E. cloacae 22491 were 771 and 521 for CZX, 416 and 643 for PIP, and 85 and 554 for PT, and with the B. fragilis-E. cloacae 032349 combination, they were 81 and 21 for CZX and 77 and 766 for PT. Resistant mutants of E. cloacae 22491 were preferentially selected in vitro with 2 to 64 micro g of CZX per ml and in vivo with CZX at 12 to 384 mg/kg/day. There was no preferential selection of CZX-resistant B. fragilis or E. cloacae 032349. For CZX-resistant E. cloacae 22491, we found a 16- to 512-fold increase in the MIC of CZX and increased MICs of other expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, owing in part to the production of a stably derepressed cephalosporinase. In vitro and in vivo, PT did not select resistant mutants of E. cloacae and B. fragilis. Results demonstrate the adverse microbiological outcome of choosing an expanded-spectrum cephalosporin like CZX for empirical treatment of mixed infections involving a susceptible Enterobacter strain.

Abscess/*drug therapy/microbiology, Animals, Bacteroides fragilis/*drug effects/genetics, Ceftizoxime/administration & dosage/pharmacology/*therapeutic use, Cephalosporins/administration & dosage/pharmacology/*therapeutic use, Colony Count, Microbial, Comparative Study, Drug Resistance, Enterobacter cloacae/*drug effects/genetics, Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage/pharmacology/*therapeutic use, Female, Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Mutation/genetics, Penicillanic Acid/administration & dosage/*analogs & derivatives/pharmacology/*therapeutic use, Penicillins/administration & dosage/pharmacology/*therapeutic use, Piperacillin/administration & dosage/pharmacology/*therapeutic use, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
hdl.handle.net/1765/10334
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Stearne, L.E.T, van Boxtel, D, Lemmens, N, Goessens, W.H.F, Mouton, J.W, & Gyssens, I.C. (2004). Comparative study of the effects of ceftizoxime, piperacillin, and piperacillin-tazobactam concentrations on antibacterial activity and selection of antibiotic-resistant mutants of Enterobacter cloacae and Bacteroides fragilis in vitro and in vivo in mixed-infection abscesses. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1765/10334