Background: Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are more prone to physical injuries, including motor vehicle accidents, fractures and brain injuries. Several observational studies have been published investigating the association between the use of pharmacological treatment for ADHD and the incidence of physical injuries among patients with ADHD; however, the findings are not concordant. Objective: This study is a systematic review and meta-analysis of the existing literature and estimates the overall association between the use of ADHD medications and physical injury. Injury is defined as medically attended physical injuries in the form of hospitalisations, emergency department visits or general practitioners visits. Methods: The PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Cochrane Review databases were searched for relevant studies published up to May 2017 relating to ADHD medication and risk of injuries. Observational studies with any study design, all age groups (children and adults) and all ADHD medications (stimulant and non-stimulants) were included. Studies relevant to the association between ADHD medication exposure and risk of injuries in ADHD patients were extracted and compiled for meta-analysis. Both within-individual and between-individual analyses were conducted. Results: Overall, 2001 citations were identified and 10 observational studies were included. Three self-controlled case series and two self-controlled cohorts were eligible for meta-analysis of within-individual studies. Five cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis of between-individual studies. The adjusted rate ratio of the within-individual methods was 0.76 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.61–0.93) and 0.88 (95% CI 0.85–0.92) for between-individual studies. Conclusion: The findings of this meta-analysis support a reduced risk of injuries among ADHD patients who were treated with ADHD medications.

Additional Metadata
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40263-017-0485-1, hdl.handle.net/1765/103581
Journal CNS Drugs
Citation
Man, K.K.C. (Kenneth K. C.), Ip, P. (Patrick), Chan, E.W. (Esther W.), Law, S.-L. (Siew-ling), Leung, M.T.Y. (Miriam T. Y.), Ma, E.X.Y. (Evelyn X. Y.), … Wong, I.C.K. (Ian C. K.). (2017). Effectiveness of Pharmacological Treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder on Physical Injuries. CNS Drugs, 1–13. doi:10.1007/s40263-017-0485-1