Introduction Multiple reports have questioned the feasibility of neonatal thoracoscopic repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and esophageal atresia (EA). The aim of this study is to examine the effects of CO 2 pneumothorax on cerebral and renal rSO 2 and to assess the potential predictive value of these data on neurodevelopmental outcome after neonatal thoracoscopic surgery for CDH or EA. Methods A prospective observational pilot study. Cerebral and renal regional tissue oxyhemoglobine saturation (rSO 2 ) rSO 2 were assessed using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during thoracoscopic surgery in neonates with CDH and with EA, in addition to routine anesthesia monitoring. Cerebral and renal rSO 2 , linked to repeated arterial blood gas analyses, heart rate, blood pressure, and to structured longitudinal neurodevelopmental follow-up. Results Baseline estimated marginal means of cerebral rSO 2 values (CDH: 82%, EA: 91%) did not change significantly during pneumothorax (CDH: 81%, EA 79% [n.s. versus baseline]) despite severe acidosis (lowest pH, CDH: 6.99, EA: 7.1). Neurodevelopmental outcomes at 24 months were normal in all 7 patients who were available for evaluation. Conclusion Neonatal thoracoscopic repair of CDH and EA using CO 2 -pneumothorax leads to severe acidosis. Cerebral rSO 2 remained within clinical acceptable limits during intraoperative periods of acidosis. Neurodevelopmental outcome was favorable within the first 24 months. The potential of NIRS to further improve perioperative care and long-term outcome in this specific patient group deserves further investigation.

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Keywords acidosis, atresia, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, esophageal, near infrared, spectroscopy, surgery, thoracoscopic
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Journal European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
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Costerus, S.A, Vlot, J, van Rosmalen, J.M, Wijnen, R.M.H, & Weber, F. (Frank). (2017). Effects of Neonatal Thoracoscopic Surgery on Tissue Oxygenation: A Pilot Study on (Neuro-) Monitoring and Outcomes. European Journal of Pediatric Surgery. doi:10.1055/s-0037-1615277