Purpose: To determine the optimal brachytherapy dose and fractionation scheme for keloid treatment.
Methods and Materials: Patient cohorts from 3 centers treated with keloid excision followed by 2 × 9 Gy, 3 × 6 Gy, or 2 × 6 Gy high-dose-rate brachytherapy were retrospectively compared regarding recurrence (after at least 12 months' follow-up) and complications (after at least 1 month's follow-up), using logistic regression analyses.
Results: A total of 238 keloids were treated. An overall full recurrence rate of 8.3% was found. After correction for confounders (sex, skin color, keloid location, keloid duration) no statistically significant differences in recurrence rates could be discerned between fractionation schemes. There were 12.8% major and 45.6% minor complication rates. Lower radiation dose resulted in significantly fewer complications (odds ratio 0.35, P=.015).
Conclusions: After excision of resistant keloids, high-dose-rate brachytherapy with a biological equivalent dose of approximately 20 Gy is recommended, on the basis of low recurrence and complication rates.

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Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2017.10.044, hdl.handle.net/1765/103699
Journal International Journal of Radiation: Oncology - Biology - Physics
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Bijlard, E, Verduijn, G.M, Harmeling, J.X. (J. X.), Dehnad, H. (Homan), Niessen, F.B, Meijer, O.W.M, & Mureau, M.A.M. (2017). Optimal High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Fractionation Scheme After Keloid Excision. International Journal of Radiation: Oncology - Biology - Physics. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2017.10.044