Circulating microRNA biomarkers can be indicators of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but may also hold prognostic value. The ability to predict prognosis of early-stage NSCLC is important, as it may potentially impact patient outcome. Studies to define these prognostic microRNA biomarkers are urgently needed. Also, insight into the biological significance of the microRNA biomarker in the cancer cell-and within the tumor-may reveal novel and therapeutically interesting signaling networks.