Background: Carbapenem-nonsusceptible A. baumannii-calcoaceticus complex have emerged worldwide, but the epidemiology in Indonesian hospitals has not been studied. Methods: A prospective observational study was performed on the intensive care units (ICUs) of the national referral hospital in Jakarta-Indonesia, in 2013 and 2014. All consecutive adult patients admitted and hospitalized for >48 h in ICUs were included. Basic and clinical data at admission were recorded. Carbapenem-nonsusceptible A. baumannii-calcoaceticus complex from clinical cultures and standardized screening were included. Environmental niches and healthcare workers (HCWs) were also screened. PCR was used to detect carbapenemase genes, and Raman spectroscopy as well as multilocus sequence typing (MLST) for typing. Results: Of 412 included patients, 69 (16.7%) carried carbapenem-nonsusceptible A. baumannii-calcoaceticus complex on admission, and 89 (25.9%) became positive during ICU stay. The acquisition rate was 43 per 1000 patient-days at risk. Six isolates were cultured from environment and one from a HCW. Acquisition of carbapenem-nonsusceptible A. baumannii-calcoaceticus complex was associated with longer ICU stay (median interquartile range [IQR]: 11 days [5-18], adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 2.56 [99% confidence interval (CI):1.76-3.70]), but not with mortality (adjusted odds ratio: 1.59 [99%CI: 0.74-3.40] at the chosen level of significance). The bla OXA-23-like gene was detected in 292/318 (91.8%) isolates, including isolates from the environment and HCW. Typing revealed five major clusters. Sequence types (ST)195, ST208, ST218, ST642 as well as new STs were found. The dominant clone consisted of isolates from patients and environment throughout the study period. Conclusions: Carbapenem-nonsusceptible A. baumannii-calcoaceticus complex are endemic in this setting. Prevention requires source control and limiting transmission of strains. Trial registration: The study was retrospectively registered at Candidate number: 23,527, NTR number: NTR5541, Date registered NTR: 22nd December 2015.

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Keywords Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex, Antimicrobial resistance, Carbapenemase, Carbapenems, Indonesia, Intensive care unit
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Journal Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Saharman, Y.R. (Yulia Rosa), Karuniawati, A. (Anis), Sedono, R. (Rudyanto), Aditianingsih, D. (Dita), Sudarmono, P. (Pratiwi), Goessens, W.H.F, … Severin, J.A. (2018). Endemic carbapenem-nonsusceptible Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex in intensive care units of the national referral hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 7(1). doi:10.1186/s13756-017-0296-7