Objective: Despite the widespread use of botulinum toxin in ambulatory children with spastic cerebral palsy, its value prior to intensive physiotherapy with adjunctive casting/orthoses remains unclear. Design: A pragmatically designed, multi-centre trial, comparing the effectiveness of botulinum toxin + intensive physiotherapy with intensive physiotherapy alone, including economic evaluation. Subjects/patients: Children with spastic cerebral palsy, age range 4-12 years, cerebral palsy-severity Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I- III, received either botulinum toxin type A + intensive physiotherapy or intensive physiotherapy alone and, if necessary, ankle-foot orthoses and/or casting. Methods: Primary outcomes were gross motor function, physical activity levels, and health-related quality-of-life, assessed at baseline, 12 (primary end-point) and 24 weeks (follow-up). Economic outcomes included healthcare and patient costs. Intention- to-treat analyses were performed with linear mixed models. Results: There were 65 participants (37 males), with a mean age of 7.3 years (standard deviation 2.3 years), equally distributed across Gross Motor Function Classification System levels. Forty-one children received botulinum toxin type A plus intensive physiotherapy and 24 received intensive physiotherapy treatment only. At primary end-point, one statistically significant difference was found in favour of intensive physiotherapy alone: objectively measured percentage of sedentary behaviour (-3.42, 95% confidence interval 0.20-6.64, p = 0.038). Treatment costs were significantly higher for botulinum toxin type A plus intensive physiotherapy (8, 963 vs 6, 182 euro, p = 0.001). No statistically significant differences were found between groups at follow-up. Conclusion: The addition of botulinum toxin type A to intensive physiotherapy did not improve the effectiveness of rehabilitation for ambulatory children with spastic cerebral palsy and was also not costeffective. Thus botulinum toxin is not recommended for use in improving gross motor function, activity levels or health-related quality-of-life in this cerebral palsy age- and severity-subgroup.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Botulinum toxin, Cost-effectiveness, Physiotherapy, Spastic cerebral palsy
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.2340/16501977-2267, hdl.handle.net/1765/104167
Journal Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Schasfoort, F.C, Dallmeijer, A.J, Pangalila, R.F, Catsman, C, Stam, H.J, Becher, J.G, … Verheijden, J.M.A. (2018). Value of botulinum toxin injections preceding a comprehensive rehabilitation period for children with spastic cerebral palsy: A cost-effectiveness study. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 50(1), 22–29. doi:10.2340/16501977-2267