The increase in population, high standards of living and rapid urbanization has led to an increasing demand 5 for food across the globe. The global trade has made it possible to meet this demand by enabling transport of 6 different food products from one part of the world to another. In this trade, refrigerated containers (reefers) play an 7 important role, due to their ability to maintain the quality of product throughout the journey. However, the 8 transportation and operation of reefers requires a constant supply of energy throughout the supply chain. This results 9 in a significant energy consumption by reefers. When large numbers of reefers are involved, this results in high 10 amount of energy consumption at terminals as well. From a terminal perspective, the monthly throughput of reefers 11 shows a lot of variation due to the seasonality of food products. As a result, the growth of reefer trade, the 12 seasonality of food trade and the special requirements of reefers has led to an increase in the peak power demand at 13 terminals. Because utility companies apply extra charges for the highest observed peak demand, it is beneficial for 14 terminals to keep this demand as low as possible to reduce energy costs. 15 To investigate the opportunities for container terminals to reduce their peak demand, an energy 16 consumption simulation model is developed. With the model two energy reduction strategies are tested to analyze 17 their impact on peak demand: intermitted distribution of power among reefer racks and restriction of peak power 18 consumption among operating reefers. Both strategies show significant opportunities for cost reductions.

van Duin, R., Geerlings, H., Oey, M., & Verbraeck, A. (2017). Keep it cool: Reducing energy peaks of reefers at terminals. Retrieved from