Objective: The aim of this study is to understand the current state of training practices and evaluation in laparoscopic surgery in a global context.
Design: An open-ended three part questionnaire was designed to gather the opinions about the current state of, adequacy of, and the need for a standard in laparoscopic surgical training.
Participants: Members of the European Association for Endoscopic Surgery (EAES), Endoscopic and Laparoscopic Surgeons of Asia (ELSA) and Association of Surgeons of India (ASI) were asked to participate in the survey.
Results: Of the 663 responses received, 83.6% were surgeons (64.6% in a teaching position) and 12.6% were surgical residents in training. Most respondents (75.4%) had performed over 200 laparoscopic procedures. Most (72.1%) training programs were approved/endorsed by local surgical associations or government health authorities and of the courses taught by surgical associations the majority had certified trainers (71.1%). In lower Human Development Index (HDI) countries significantly less courses are taught by certified trainers (68.2% versus 54.6%, p<0.001). Only 26.8% stated that their respective government health authorities participated in the certification of laparoscopic surgery; certification was considered important by 63.6%. However, only 17.8% of government health authorities contributed to ensure the quality of laparoscopic training, mostly in very high HDI. Only 3.3% of respondents considered the laparoscopic training and education in their country to be optimal and 51.9% rated it insufficient. Most respondents (86.3%) stated that there is a need for the standardization of laparoscopic training and 88.3% stated that standardization of laparoscopic training is important.
Conclusion: Regardless of demographic and experience factors, there was a general consensus that that there is a need for standardisation in mandatory training of laparoscopic surgical skills, although currently not obligatory in most countries.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Training, MAS, Education, Simulation, Curricula, Laparoscopic surgery
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.16966/2470-0991.148, hdl.handle.net/1765/104462
Journal Journal of Surgery: Open Access
Ganni, Sandeep, Botden, S.M.B.I, Hamilton, Benjamin F., Bedi, A.S, Lomanto, Davide, Rao, Bhaskara, & Jakimowicz, J.J. (2017). Current State of Training and Evaluation of Laparoscopic Surgical Skills. Journal of Surgery: Open Access, 3(3), 133–141. doi:10.16966/2470-0991.148