Background: Inhaled tobramycin is important in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) infections in cystic fibrosis (CF). However, despite its use it fails to attenuate the clinical progression of CF lung disease. The bactericidal efficacy of tobramycin is known to be concentration-dependent and hence changing the dosing regimen from a twice-daily (q12h) inhalation to a once-daily (q24h) inhaled double dose could improve treatment outcomes.
Objectives: To predict local concentrations of nebulized tobramycin in the airways of patients with CF, delivered with the small airway-targeting AkitaVR system or standard PARI-LC® Plus system, with different inspiratory flow profiles.
Methods: Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) methods were applied to patient-specific airway models reconstructed from chest CT scans. The following q12h and q24h dosing regimens were evaluated: AkitaVR (150 and 300 mg) and PARI-LC® Plus (300 and 600 mg). Site-specific concentrations were calculated.
Results: Twelve CT scans from patients aged 12-17 years (median=15.7) were selected. Small airway concentrations were 762-2999 mg/L for the q12h dosing regimen and 1523-5997 mg/L for the q24h dosing regimen, well above the MIC for WT Pa strains. Importantly, the q24h regimen appeared to be more suitable than the q12h regimen against more resistant Pa strains and the inhibitory effects of sputum on tobramycin activity.
Conclusions: CFD modelling showed that high concentrations of inhaled tobramycin are indeed delivered to the airways, with the AkitaVR system being twice as efficient as the PARI-LC® system. Ultimately, the q24h dosing regimen appears more effective against subpopulations with high MICs (i.e. more resistant strains).,
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

Bos, A., Mouton, J., van Westreenen, M., Andrinopoulou, E.-R., Janssens, H., & Tiddens, H. (2017). Patient-specific modelling of regional tobramycin concentration levels in airways of patients with cystic fibrosis: Can we dose once daily?. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 72(12), 3435–3442. doi:10.1093/jac/dkx293