This study provides EQ-5D population norms for 20 countries (N = 163,838), which can be used to compare profiles for patients with specific conditions with data for the average person in the general population in a similar age and/or gender group. Descriptive EQ-5D data are provided for the total population, by gender and by seven age groups. Provided index values are based on European VAS for all countries, based on TTO for 11 countries and based on VAS for 10 countries. Important differences exist in EQ-5D reported health status across countries after standardizing for population structure. Self-reported health according to all five dimensions and EQ VAS generally decreased with increasing age and was lower for females. Mean self-rated EQ VAS scores varied from 70.4 to 83.3 in the total population by country. The prior living standards (GDP per capita) in the countries studied are correlated most with the EQ VAS scores (0.58), while unemployment appeared to be significantly correlated in people over the age of 45 only. A country’s expenditure on health care correlated moderately with higher ratings on the EQ VAS (0.55). EQ-5D norms can be used as reference data to assess the burden of disease of patients with specific conditions. Such information, in turn, can inform policy-making and assist in setting priorities in health care.

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Keywords EQ-5D, Health state values, Health-related quality of life, Population norms
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Journal The European Journal of Health Economics
Janssen, M.F, Szende, A. (A.), Cabasés, J.M, Ramos-Goñi, J.M, Vilagut, G. (G.), & König, H.H. (H. H.). (2018). Population norms for the EQ-5D-3L: a cross-country analysis of population surveys for 20 countries. The European Journal of Health Economics, 1–12. doi:10.1007/s10198-018-0955-5