Objectives: This study systematically explores the prevalence of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) after acute pancreatitis in different subgroups of etiology (biliary/alcoholic/other), disease severity and follow-up time (<12, 12-36 and > 36 months after index admission).
Methods: PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched, 32 studies were included in this study level meta-analysis.
Results: In a total of 1495 patients with acute pancreatitis, tested at a mean of 36 months after index admission, the pooled prevalence of PEI was 27.1% (95%-confidence interval [CI]: 20.3%-35.1%). Patients from seven studies (n = 194) underwent direct tests with pooled prevalence of 41.7% [18.5%-69.2%]. Patients from 26 studies (n = 1305) underwent indirect tests with pooled prevalence of 24.4% [18.3%-31.8%]. In subgroup analyses on patients that underwent fecal elastase-1 tests, PEI occurred more often in alcoholic pancreatitis (22.7% [16.6%-30.1%]) than in biliary pancreatitis (10.2% [6.2%-16.4%]) or other etiology (13.4% [7.7%-22.4%]; P = 0.02). Pooled prevalence of PEI after mild and severe pancreatitis was 19.4% [8.6%-38.2%] and 33.4% [22.6%-46.3%] respectively in studies using fecal elaste-1 tests (P = 0.049). Similar results were seen in patients without (18.9% [9.3%-34.6%]) and with necrotizing pancreatitis (32.0% [18.2%-49.8%]; P = 0.053). Over time, the prevalence of PEI decreased in patients who underwent the fecal elastase-1 test and increased in patients who underwent the fecal fat analysis.
Conclusions: After acute pancreatitis, a quarter of all patients develop PEI during follow-up. Alcoholic etiology and severe and necrotizing pancreatitis are associated with higher risk of PEI. The prevalence of PEI may change as time of follow-up increases.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Acute pancreatitis, Exocrine insufficiency, Follow-up
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2018.02.009, hdl.handle.net/1765/104898
Journal Pancreatology
Citation
Hollemans, R.A. (Robbert A.), Hallensleben, N.D.L, Mager, D.J. (David J.), Kelder, J.C, Besselink, M.G, Bruno, M.J, … van Santvoort, H.C. (2018). Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency following acute pancreatitis. Pancreatology, 18(3). doi:10.1016/j.pan.2018.02.009