Background: Emergence of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is of global concern. We aimed to identify epidemiological relationships, the most common way of transmission, and risk factors for presence of Verona Integron-encoded Metallo-β-lactamase (VIM)-positive P. aeruginosa (VIM-PA). Methods: We conducted a network analysis and matched case-control studies (1:2:2). Controls were hospital-based and matched with cases for ward, day of admission (control group 1 and 2) and time between admission and the identification of VIM-PA (control group 1). The network was visualized using Cytoscape, and risk factors were determined using conditional logistic regression. Results: Between August 2003 and April 2015, 144 case patients and 576 control patients were recruited. We identified 307 relationships in 114 out of these 144 patients, with most relationships (84.7%) identified at the same department <3months after a previous case patient was discharged. In the multivariable model, having undergone ≥1 gastroscopy (odds ratio [OR]=4.40, 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.00 to 9.65 and OR=2.47; 95% CI=1.12 to 5.49), >10day use of selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) (OR=2.97; 95% CI=1.02 to 8.68 and OR=4.61; 95% CI=1.22 to 17.37), and use of quinolones (OR=3.29; 95% CI=1.34 to 8.10 and OR=3.95; 95% CI=1.13 to 13.83 and OR=4.47; 95% CI=1.75 to 11.43) were identified as risk factors when using both control groups. Conclusions: The network analysis indicated that the majority of transmissions occurred on the wards, but through unidentified and presumably persistent sources, which are most likely in the innate hospital environment. Previous use of certain antibiotic regimens made patients prone to VIM-PA carriage. Additionally, gastroscopy could be considered as a high-risk procedure in patients with risk factors. Our results add to the growing body of evidence that infection control measures targeting VIM-PA should be focused on reducing antibiotics and eliminating sources in the environment.

Case-control study, Infection prevention and control, Network analysis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, VIM carbapenemase
dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13756-018-0325-1, hdl.handle.net/1765/104926
Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

Voor in 't holt, A.F, Severin, J.A, Hagenaars, M.B.H. (Margot B.H.), De Goeij, I, Gommers, D.A.M.P.J, & Vos, M.C. (2018). VIM-positive Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a large tertiary care hospital: Matched case-control studies and a network analysis. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 7(1). doi:10.1186/s13756-018-0325-1